Army of Tennessee BRAGG

The county seat. Fall of 1862 – center for Confederate hospitals; Sept. 11, 1863 – invaded by Union army (Van Cleve’s Division of the 21st Army Corp and Col. John T. Wilder’s Mounted Infantry Brigade); Nov. 27, 1863 – Battle of Ringgold Gap and burned by Gen. Hooker; Spring of 1864 – staging area for Gen. Sherman’s Georgia Campaign.’

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Dr. Peter Anderson, a Virginia born physician, owned property on the northwest corner of the intersection of LaFayette and Straight Gut roads which was the site of Confederate encampments prior to the battle.

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Was used often leading up to the Battle of Chickamauga. Sept. 18th Confederate Commander Major-Gen. John C. Breckinridge wrote “my command moved from Catlett’s Gap to the east bank of the Chickamauga, near Glass Mill.

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Named for the honorable Governor John B. Gordon, who was a student there, it was Gen. Bragg’s headquarters and contains a monument listing all known Confederate soldiers from Walker County.

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“Snow Hill” was the plantation managed by the widow Clarissa Hunt during the war. General Braxton Bragg made his headquarters here. / During an artillery duel on September 18, a Confederate courier was killed on the Henderson Plantation; Henderson wrote “he was eating cornbread when a cannonball struck him in the breast”.

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This redoubt was built by Confederate General Patrick Cleburne in the summer of 1863. It was occupied by Federal troops until the end of the war. One unit here was the 44th U. S. Colored Infantry Regiment.

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Lead columns of Confederate General Brush Johnson’s Division first encountered Federal resistance from Colonel Robert Minty’s Cavalry near Peavine Creek. The Federals retreated to Reed’s Bridge.

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General Nathan Bedford Forrest held the extreme right of the Confederate Army. He held this position during the afternoon. Immediately after the Battle, General Forrest pursued the retreating Federal Army as far as Rossville Gap.

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The site of heavy skirmishes on Sept. 18, 1863. The site of a full scale battle on Sept. 19, 1863 between Union Gen. John Beatty and Confederate Gen. John Breckinridge and a cavalry clash between Union Gen. George

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Established by John Henderson, the son of a Scottish immigrant, this site saw many Confederate camps leading up to the Battle. When the Union Army approached Henderson took most of his enslaved Africans to safety.

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The Federal Army of the Cumberland was about to cut the supply lines from Atlanta. The Confederates were forced to withdraw from Chattanooga. The primary line of retreat was on the LaFayette Road.

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A major staging area prior to the Battle of Chickamauga and General Braxton Bragg’s headquarters on September 17, 1863 just before the Battle. He left the area the morning of the 18th.

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A faithful enslaved African belonging to John Henderson and the only person he trusted with his gold, she drew water for, gave food to, and nursed wounded Confederate soldiers.

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A small frame building with an adjacent cemetery. Confederate soldiers camped in this area before the Battle and the cemetery contains the graves of Confederate veterans.

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With two doors, so male and female worshipers could enter separately and seat themselves on opposite sites of the church. The area was occupied by Confederate forces during the Campaign.

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Built in 1852, the church was located immediately behind Confederate lines during the Battle of Ringgold Gap (Nov. 1864). It was used as an aid station for wounded Confederates with blood stains remaining on the floor. / Built as a freight station to supplement the depot at Ringgold. All Confederate reinforcements who came by train had to get off at Catoosa station. It was used as a Confederate hospital after the Battle of Chickamauga

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Built in 1849 for the coming of the Western and Atlantic railroad it was struck by a few cannon balls during the Union shelling of Sept. 11 & 17, 1863. During the Battle of Ringgold Gap (Nov. 27, 1863) it was in the center of the action. Gen. Joseph Hooker spent the entire battle sitting on a cracker barrel behind the stone walls.

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The site of cavalry skirmishes during September 1863. On September 6-7, Confederate cavalry forces of Major General Joseph Wheeler’s command engaged in battle with Federal cavalry regiments from General Alexander McCook’s 20th Corps. Confederate Colonel Isaac Avery’s 4th Georgia Regiment and Federal Colonel Louis D. Watkin’s 4th Kentucky Regiment also fought here.

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A large log structure that stood at the corner of Guyler and Nashville streets in downtown Ringgold that was a boarding house run by Widow Evans and housed several Confederate nurses while they worked in local hospitals.

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Spencer Marsh built the house about 1836, but went south during the Battle only to return and find the house severely damaged from the war.

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The first cotton mill in Northwest Georgia established by Allgood, Marsh, and Briers in 1845. During the war it produced textiles for the Confederate Army and was ordered closed by Gen. Sherman in 1864, but reopened.

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Residence where Confederate General John Bell Hood was taken after he lost his leg at the Battle of Chickamauga.

Route taken by Confederate Generals Thomas Hindman and Simon Buckner to engage the Federal Army in McLemore’s cove on September 9 & 10, 1863.

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Army of the Cumberland ROSECRANS

On this site, September 8 and 12, 1863, Confederate cavalry forces commanded by Major General Joseph Wheeler attacked and engaged in battle, the cavalry forces of the advancing Federal 20th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland commanded by Major General Alexander McDowell McCook.

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A small wartime community located near the eastern base of Lookout Mountain in what is known as the Cassandra community. Wiley Bailey and a neighbor acted as spies for Gen. Negley during the Federal advance.

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Built on West Chickamauga Creek during the 1840’s by Philemon Bird, a member of a prominent wealthy Georgia family, and used by Federal forces as a land mark on their advance toward the Battle of Chickamauga / Located in Pigeon Mountain, on Sept. 9, 1863 Gen. Thomas Hindmen led his men through this gap to his staging area in preparation for the Battle at Davis Crossroads

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Headquarters to Gen. George Thomas and campsite to three divisions during the Federal Army’s occupation of Dade County in September of 1863.

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William I. Cole, a 51 year old farmer with a plantation on Squirrel Town Creek and operated a boarding school for boys known as Cole’s Academy that had a reputation throughout the south.

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Although not used as much as Stephen’s Gap, several Federal units took this route into Walker County on their way to the Battle of Chickamauga.

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Site of the original 9th district Cherokee courthouse and was the major water source for the Army of the Cumberland during the Battle. Located across the street, the Gordon-Lee House, built in 1847, was Gen. Rosecrans headquarters prior to, the site of seven division Union hospitals during the Battle and captured by Gen. Wheeler, it is the only original structure used during the Battle by both armies that is still standing.

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James William Cureton established the “Dademont” plantation, operated a grist and saw mill, raised a Confederate company, became a Captain, and then served in the Georgia Legislature.

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Located in Pigeon Mountain it provided access to LaFayette from Steven’s Gap coming off Lookout Mountain. On Sept. 8 Confederate cavalry started blocking the gaps and remained until Sept. 17 until Gen. Wheeler arrived.

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Called the key to the Sequatchie Valley, this fort was built by General Alexander McCook in the summer of 1862. During the Chickamauga Campaign it was occupied by General John Brannon’s Division of the 14th Federal Army Corps for crossing the Tennessee River.

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An important crossing place through Chickamauga Creek which was covered by Gen. Rosecrans to protect his men on the way to Lee and Gordon’s Mills. Numerous skirmishes took place here leading up to the Battle. / Small church cemetery established by Cove Methodist Church; burial site of “widow” Glenn, who’s house was Gen. Rosecrans headquarters, and possibly one or two unidentified Confederate soldiers.

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Built by James Gordon and owned by James Lee at the time of the Battle, it was occupied on Sept. 12 by divisions of Gen. Thomas Crittenden 21st Federal Army Corps. It saw heavy fighting on the 18th and was used by Gen. Wheeler’s cavalry to cross Chickamauga Creek in capturing Union hospitals at Crawfish Spring.

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Called the key to the Sequatchie Valley, this fort was built by General Alexander McCook in the summer of 1862. During the Chickamauga Campaign it was occupied by General John Brannon’s Division of the 14th Federal Army Corps for crossing the Tennessee River.

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One of the many natural attractions to be seen on Lookout Mountain. Many of the soldiers visited this site for

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Built near Trenton Spring and chartered in Macon, GA in 1862; was abandoned when the Army of the Cumberland entered in September 1863 and partially destroyed by Gen. Ewing (Sherman’s Corp) in November.

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In the small community of Rossville the house was built by John McDonald in the late 1700’s, inherited by his grandson John Ross, and occupied by Thomas McFarland at the time of the war; the house served as Gen. Thomas’ headquarters on Sept. 21, 1863.

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Beautiful spring located beside Murphy’s Hollow Road. Two divisions of the 14th Army Corps and all of the 21st Army Corps of the Federal Army of the Cumberland used this route to enter Dade County in September 1863.

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The route through Neal’s Gap into Broomtown Valley for the Union 20th Army Corps in their advance toward Summerville in Sept, 1863. Four days of fighting against Confederate Cavalry took place along the road.

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A successful stock farm established by Colonel James Cooper Nisbet and his brother. Nisbet raised a local Confederate company. Occupied by Gen. Lytle of the 20th Army Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.

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An important crossing place through Chickamauga Creek near John Owing’s farm. Heavy skirmishes took place here leading up to the Battle. / In the path of the Federal advance to Chickamauga. The site today consists of a two-story frame structure with columns in front that is believed to be the main house of the wartime Childress plantation.

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Built in 1836, occupied by federal troops in September, was used to grind grain for the soldiers on their way to the Battle of Chickamauga.

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Along with McFarland Gap, an escape route used by the Union Army to escape to Chattanooga after their defeat at Chickamauga.

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Retreating Confederates destroyed the railroad bridge over Running Water Creek. The rebuilding of the bridge by the Federal Army has been called one of the greatest feats of military engineering during the war.

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Located on the eastern side of Lookout Mountain, it was the first obstacle the Federal Army faced in getting over the mountain in September of 1863 to invade Walker County.

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Home of the Zachariah O’Neal family and one of the few wartime structures still standing in its original form in Dade County and the only such structure in the city of Trenton.

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Fort McCook – Site of local Soldiers Relief Society, example of what women of the Confederacy did during the war making quilts, knit socks, mittens, uniforms, and rolled bandages. Directed by Manerva Redding and her mother.

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Xzanders McFarland came to the area in 1835 to survey land for the Cherokee Land Lottery and built a fine house that served briefly as Gen. James Longstreet’s headquarters in October 1863. / A “long and narrow defile” in the ridge between Chickamauga and Chattanooga used by the Federal Army to escape to Chattanooga after being defeated at Chickamauga on September 20, 1863.

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To the Federals it was clear that Bragg’s plan was to push by their left into Chattanooga which prompted General George Thomas to make a tiresome night march. He moved below Lee and Gordon’s Mills taking position in the vicinity of the Widow Glenn’s house, forming the left of the Union Army. By 10:30 PM he reached Crawfish Springs. Chickamauga Cemetery – Site of a Confederate Monument erected by the local camp of the Sons of the Confederate Veterans memorializing the veterans buried there.

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County seat of Dade County; Two divisions of Gen. Thomas’ 14th Army Corps entered Dade County by way of Murphy’s Hollow and moved to Trenton. Gen. Ewing occupied the area in Nov. 1863 and burned the town.

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Brigadier General George Crook established his headquarters at the Valley Store on September 10, 1863. General Crook sent his cavalry force up the Broomtown road to engage the Confederates.

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On August 21, 1863, Colonel John T. Wilder placed his artillery here on Stringer’s Ridge and shelled Chattanooga. Some consider this the opening action of the Chickamauga Campaign.

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Mills

Built on West Chickamauga Creek during the 1840’s by Philemon Bird, a member of a prominent wealthy Georgia family, and used by Federal forces as a land mark on their advance toward the Battle of Chickamauga / Located in Pigeon Mountain, on Sept. 9, 1863 Gen. Thomas Hindmen led his men through this gap to his staging area in preparation for the Battle at Davis Crossroads

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Built by James Gordon and owned by James Lee at the time of the Battle, it was occupied on Sept. 12 by divisions of Gen. Thomas Crittenden 21st Federal Army Corps. It saw heavy fighting on the 18th and was used by Gen. Wheeler’s cavalry to cross Chickamauga Creek in capturing Union hospitals at Crawfish Spring.

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